School Segregation, An Ever-Present Problem Across America

In the public mind, misconceptions about residential and school segregation abound. Despite what many believe, the Civil Rights Movement did not end school segregation. And neither is segregation today primarily a problem of the South. The 1974 Supreme Court decision in Milliken v. Bradley, the case set in metropolitan Detroit, undid much of the impact of Brown v. Board of Education by banning busing across school district jurisdictional lines. Whites simply moved to the suburbs, which maintained racial segregation through all sorts of economic measures like zoning out public housing and mandating lot sizes so large that poor people could not afford to build there.

Here is historian Thomas Sugrue from his giant 2008 history, Sweet Land of Liberty: “At the opening of the twenty-first century, the fifteen most segregated metropolitan areas in the United States were in the Northeast and Midwest. A half century after the Supreme Court struck down separate, unequal schools as unconstitutional, racial segregation is still the norm in northern public schools. The five states with the highest rates of school segregation—New York, New Jersey, Illinois, Michigan, and California—are all outside the South. Rates of unemployment, underemployment, and poverty reach Third World levels among African Americans in nearly every major northern city….” (p. xix)  “The stark disparities between blacks and whites by every measure—economic attainment, health, education, and employment—are the results.  The high degree of separation by race reinforces and hardens perceptions of racial difference. It creates racially homogeneous public institutions that are geographically defined, limits the access of many minorities to employment opportunities, and leads to racial polarization in politics. Residential segregation has led to a concentration of poverty in urban areas…. (p. 540)

But what about the South, where school districts are more likely to be county-wide and where the courts and the federal Department of Justice enforced the eradication of what was known as de jure segregation—segregation that was explicitly defined by Jim Crow laws?  Two fine articles published this week explore the ongoing resegregation of schools in metropolitan Birmingham, Alabama, where a white enclave is seceding from the Jefferson County school district. Emmanuel Felton’s The Department of Justice is Overseeing the Resegregation of American Schools, published jointly by the Hechinger Report and The Nation, and Nikole Hannah-Jones’ NY Times Magazine report, The Resegregation of Jefferson County: What One Alabama Town’s Attempt to Secede from Its School District Tells Us About the Fragile Progress of Racial Integration in America, examine an effort by white parents to remake Gardendale, Alabama’s public schools into a small, largely white school district.

Hannah Jones explains that Gardendale’s parents were very savvy in the way the proceeded. They formed an advocacy group for secession—Focus—Future of Our Community Utilizing Schools.  Then they waited until the Jefferson County Schools passed a bond issue and rebuilt Gardendale High School into a state of the art facility before they made their move to break away: “In Alabama, any town of more than 5,000 residents can vote to form its own school system, and over they years, members of Focus watched covetously as the neighboring white communities did just that. Gardendale, too, had considered secession for two decades but was deterred when feasibility studies showed that the town of nearly 14,000 could not support an independent school system, partly because the tax base could not generate enough revenue to replace its old and sagging high school. Gardendale lobbied Jefferson County to build a new multimillion-dollar high school, which opened in 2010, within the town’s limits.”

Felton describes the protests of white parents, who claimed in court that their proposed secession from Jefferson County Schools had nothing to do with race: “‘The media has twisted and turned this issue to make everyone think this is about race,’ said Chris Orazine, a white Gardendale dad. ‘The people who live in this community and love this community know that nothing is further from the truth.’… Speaker after speaker complained about how the city had been portrayed. This wasn’t about race, they insisted, but about doing what was best for ‘our’ children.”

Considering that Jefferson County is still under a federal court order to eliminate segregation, how can Gardendale be openly attempting to resegregate?  Hannah-Jones explains: “It was, to a large degree, the geographic organization of Southern states that made court-ordered school desegregation there successful. Unlike the North, where metropolitan areas often include several independent school systems, the South tended toward single, countywide school systems that served cities, suburbs and rural areas.  That meant that judges could order school desegregation across municipal borders and between black and white towns, and thus most white families seeking to avoid desegregation in the South could not simply pick up and move across an invisible line to a white community with a white public-school system… Or, in Alabama, they could leave.  In reaction to the Brown ruling, Alabama passed its school secession law, and in 1959, Mountain Brook, an all-white, wealthy Birmingham suburb, withdrew from the Jefferson County school district.”  Other school districts stayed in the county system until 1969, when a lawsuit brought by the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund forced the rezoning of the county schools under court order.

“(W)hat makes the Jefferson County case unique,” writes Felton, “is the federal government’s power to stop it…. That’s because Jefferson County is one of just 176 school districts, out of the 13,500 across the nation, that are still under federal oversight to make sure they’re keeping their promise to fully eliminate all vestiges of Jim Crow.  Yet six decades after Brown, federal judges and officials rarely check to see if districts are obeying their orders to desegregate—and in many cases, schools in districts with a history of discrimination against black children have actually grown more segregated under federal supervision.  And when the judges do step in, they’ve often sided with the districts where school segregation is getting worse.”  Felton describes the Department of Justice as lax in enforcement—“While Obama’s Justice Department racked up wins in dozens of cases, including a high-profile case in Cleveland, Mississippi, officials in many districts with segregated schools report that they hadn’t heard from either the Justice Department or the courts during Obama’s tenure. Many of the 176 outstanding cases have been in a state of suspended animation for years, if not decades.”

In April, federal judge, Madeline Hughes Haikala, an Obama appointee, allowed Gardendale to secede despite that her decision named race as among the reasons white parents had sought a separate district. Felton writes: “In April, she ruled that Gardendale could break away.”  But her decision was slightly nuanced: “Gardendale would start with two elementary schools and would have to work in ‘good faith’ to earn the middle and high schools.”

Hannah-Jones describes Haikala’s requirements for Gardendale to act in “good faith”: “Haikala had, despite her finding of intentional discrimination, decided to give Gardendale ownership over the county’s two elementary schools located in Gardendale for the coming school year. In order to do so, she required the appointment of a black school-board member and for Gardendale to work with the plaintiffs and the Justice Department to come up with a desegregation plan to govern the new district. Gardendale would also either have to relinquish the high school that Jefferson County residents had paid for and that served students from several other communities or repay the county $33 million for the school. After doing that and then operating the two schools ‘in good faith’ for three years, Haikala said she would reconsider their motion for a full separation.”

Hannah-Jones concludes: “What the Gardendale case demonstrates with unusual clarity is that changes in the law have not changed the hearts of many white Americans.”  These articles—Felton’s  and Hannah-Jones’—are worth reading together. They are a sobering update on America’s long struggle with racism and the unresolved and very current issue of school segregation which is always accompanied by educational inequity. Quality education is supposed to be a right for all of our children, but we are a long way from having achieved justice.

8 thoughts on “School Segregation, An Ever-Present Problem Across America

  1. One concept that I have been “kicking around” for some years, is the idea of a “common market” in education. I live in metro WashDC. Some students in Prince George’s county Maryland, illegally attend public schools in WashDC. The parents will get a “ghost” address, or use the address of a friend or relative who lives in DC. Then they set up an “underground railroad”, and take their kids to school in DC. You can see a plethora of Maryland license plates on the cars, each morning and afternoon, as the parent transport their kids to DC.

    Why not give the parents the choice to attend school in Maryland or DC? The different jurisdictions would then bill the school system where the child resides, and the school system where the child attends, would get reimbursed?

    Even the most ardent opponents of school choice, should support the idea of a child attending a government operated school in an adjacent jurisdiction. This common market, would end segregation, since the child in a “black” jurisdiction would attend school in a “white” jurisdiction.

  2. Under what rock does the above commenter live? Certainly not in Philadelphia or PA, where your child will not help to REsegregate a school but enter directly a 100% minority segregated outfit that is a parasite to an already underfunded institution/District. School choice [i.e., charters] makes many unfounded, even delusional, claims, but being “the fast track to integration” is surely not one of them: visual acuity is more damaging than enough. This experience of segregation is often a precursor of many forms of violence, in & out of school proper. A Research for Action study [Inquirer, 9/13/17:B3] “found that the fiscal impact on a school system depends not only on the rate of charter growth, but also on the size of the district.” Philadelphia has absorbed more than half of that growth from 13,816 in 2008-09 to132,860 in 2015-16…or 70,000 in 83 charters out of nearly 135,000 {graph provided}. Charters are almost exclusively an urban/inner city phenomenon in PA. This is more bittersweet with the U.S.Census American Community Survey
    [Inquirer, 9/14/17: B1/B9] showing ‘Phila. remains poorest big city’ recording the highest rate of ‘deep poverty’ & more than 37% of city children living in poverty. Food insecurity is a graphic problem, says the Coalition Against Hunger, noting :that proposed cuts to the hunger safety net recently voiced by Congress would only make a festering situation collapse.” One charter is Turkish-language related to the expatriate living in the Poconos but wanted & charged with some influence in the unrest back in Turkey proper!

  3. What an impressive article on school segregation, Jan. Have you read The Color of Law by Rothstein? It is a tome on how segregation has evolved not only as de facto but by de jure, by legal considerations, in the nation. Long ago in the 70s when I was taking a school law course at Northern Illinois University, I was motivated during our study of desegregation law to contact the public school system serving, I believe, Prince Georges County. Following the desegregation of public schools, academies popped up as a white response there, and I wanted to know if they were still present, keeping segregation intact. Indeed, the academies were. How so many people of color have succeeded in what we call the American Dream despite all the barriers, by practice as well as by statute, that have been put up in the areas of education, housing, employment, health care, etc. etc. is a testimony to human determination as well as a source of American shame! Segregation has now evolved, if not by intent certainly by result, from charters and vouchers moving in to replace the public schools.

  4. Yes, Rothstein’s book is being highly praised by reviewers – I’m about to start it. By the way, Jennifer Berkshire announced last week that she was interviewing him for an upcoming podcast in her “HaveYouHeard” series. Something to look forward to, for sure.

  5. Pingback: Listen to This #12 – Live Long and Prosper

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