Democrats Recognize Essential Role of Public Schools, Whose Needs Trump and DeVos Don’t Bother to Notice

In a refreshing development this week, as Democrats held their convention to nominate Joe Biden as the Democratic candidate for President and Kamala Harris for Vice President, public education was made visible again as an institution of vital importance to American life.

For President Donald Trump, opening schools matters only to enable parents to go to work.  I have never heard Trump or his education secretary, Betsy DeVos, speak about the needs of children or acknowledge the importance of our nation’s system of universally available public schools in cities, towns, rural areas and suburbs across America.

If you watched the Democrats on Tuesday night, however, you know that Jill Biden spoke from the Brandywine High School classroom where she once taught in Wilmington, Delaware. Education Week‘s Andrew Ujifusa reports her remarks: “You can hear the anxiety that echoes down empty hallways. There’s no scent of new notebooks or freshly waxed floors… The rooms are dark as the bright young faces that should fill them are now confined to boxes on a computer screen… I hear it from so many of you: the frustration of parents juggling work while they support their children’s learning—or are afraid that their kids might get sick from school. The concern of every person working without enough protection. The despair in the lines that stretch out before food banks.” Ujifusa continues: “Joe Biden appeared at the end of her video segment to underscore his wife’s role in schools: ‘Just think of your favorite educator who gave you the confidence to believe in yourself.'”

And you may also remember that, as she announced Arizona’s votes in the nomination Roll Call, Marisol Garcia, a public middle school teacher and the vice president of the Arizona Education Association, wore a “Red4Ed” t-shirt and spoke about the needs of her state’s public schools.

On Tuesday, the delegates passed a strong, pro-public schools platform that reflects Joe Biden’s priorities. As Education Week’s Andrew Ujifusa reports, the Democratic Platform supports “tripling federal aid to disadvantaged students to close funding gaps between nonwhite students and their white peers, ‘more stringent guardrails’ for charter schools, and the idea that education is a public good and not a commodity… pledges to use federal programs to promote school integration through magnet schools and transportation initiatives… calls for a more-diverse teaching workforce… (pledges) to keep K-12 schools free from immigration enforcement… (and) promises to provide universal prekindergarten programs for all 3- and 4-year-olds….”  The platform pushes back against for-profit charter school management corporations and says Democrats will encourage states to move away from high-stakes tests.

Kamala Harris, who formally became Joe Biden’s vice presidential running mate on Wednesday, is a strong supporter of public schools.  And as California’s attorney general, Harris filed lawsuits to curtail abuses by the nation’s largest, for-profit charter school management organization and to protect students left with enormous debts after the shutdown of the unscrupulous, for-profit, Corinthian Colleges.

These details of the Democratic Convention wouldn’t seem so significant if we had not all been listening to President Trump and Education Secretary Betsy DeVos pressuring public schools to reopen without passage of an urgently needed additional federal relief package and in the midst of a pandemic raging out of control.

Education Week’s Andrew Ujifusa reports that Congress and the Trump administration continue to refuse to compromise with Nancy Pelosi and Congressional Democrats by removing the demand that, to qualify for additional federal relief, school districts must open fully in-person: “Senate Republicans aren’t budging from their proposal that schools must have some sort of plan to hold in-person classes in order to tap the majority of new federal coronavirus relief for K-12. The so-called ‘skinny’ coronavirus relief bill from the GOP has not been formally introduced, but as written, the legislation does not change the key elements of the July bill that Democrats rejected immediately.  Since Republicans introduced that July bill, negotiations between White House officials and Democrats have failed to produce a compromise… As with the July bill, the scaled-back, 169-page draft proposal says one-third of $70 billion included in the bill for K-12 would be available to schools regardless of whether they plan to offer a full slate of regular classes, only remote learning, or some hybrid.  But the remaining two-thirds would not be available to schools offering remote-only learning.”

Even if Congress finally reaches a compromise, it will be too late, because schools are currently being forced to make arrangements for the fall semester without being able to count on needed funds.  A significant number of districts which have opened in places where the pandemic is not yet contained have already had to shut down due to spreading infections or to quarantine large numbers of students and teachers. And even the school districts which are being forced to open only on-line for at least the early months of the school year face large expenses.

It is easy to underestimate the expenses school districts face as they get ready to open on-line. The Washington Post‘s Moirah Balngit describes the financial dilemma Baltimore faces: “In Baltimore, the school system helped set up 7,000 families with Internet Essentials, a program that provides low-cost Internet service to qualifying households. The first two months of the program were free.  But last month, the school system realized that if it didn’t pay the $650,000 bill, many of those families would lose service. ‘I was not going to stand by and let 14,000 students not be able to log on because of a bill we knew needed to be paid,’ said Baltimore City Public Schools CEO Sonja Santelises. ‘It’s yet one more thing that, in serving children and families, schools are being asked to do.’ ”

Balingit points out that perhaps federal restrictions on Internet spending could have been adjusted with a more thoughtful and coordinated federal strategy: “The lack of a national strategy has left superintendents to devise solutions on their own… A long-standing program run by the Federal Communications Commission that subsidizes Internet service for schools and libraries is of little help to students during the pandemic. FCC Chairman Ajit Pai told schools they can use the funding only for Internet service at their campuses—even when schools have been shut down.  Pai has said that the law does not allow the money to be used for providing domestic Internet service and that he does not have the authority to do otherwise. FCC Commissioner Jessica Rosenworcel, the sole Democrat on the panel, disagrees—as do congressional Democrats and school leaders across the country. She accused the commission of failing to act to address what she called ‘a national crisis.’… Schools and students have been left to find solutions on their own. The parking lots of schools, libraries, and fast-food restaurants that offer free WiFi have become the de facto classrooms for many students. Other school systems equipped buses with WiFi hot spots and parked them in underserved neighborhoods. In some school systems, such as Baltimore, officials just paid the bills of hundreds of families out of their own budgets to keep the households online. But none of the improvised solutions are sustainable or scalable, and they often rely on the ability of school officials to court philanthropies and negotiate with Internet service providers.”

Democrats put the spotlight on the needs of public schools this week, but this summer Betsy DeVos has managed to keep out of sight.  NBC NewsHeidi Przybyla reported last week: “As public schools grapple with the challenge of reopening during a pandemic, public education advocates are criticizing Education Secretary Betsy DeVos for working remotely from Michigan, where she owns a sprawling waterfront estate with a round-the-clock security detail paid for by taxpayers. And while keeping herself largely physically distanced as the coronavirus continues to spread, DeVos has been a forceful advocate for President Donald Trump’s demand that schools reopen in full and in person—potentially placing millions of teachers and students at risk of infection.”

Robert Reich, who served in the administrations of Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton and who is now a professor of public policy at the University of California at Berkeley, excoriated Betsy DeVos in a column last week for being absent as the public schools her department supposedly serves struggle with impossible decisions in the midst of uncertain funding. Reich writes: “Betsy DeVos is heading the administration’s effort to force schools to reopen in the fall for in-person instruction. What’s her plan to reopen safely?  She doesn’t have one. Rather than seeking additional federal funds, she’s using this pandemic to further her ploy to privatize education—threatening to withhold federal funds from public schools that don’t reopen. Repeatedly pressed by journalists during TV appearances, DeVos can’t come up with a single mechanism or guideline for reopening schools safely. …. Districts need more funding, not less, to implement the CDC’s guidelines. Given that state and local governments are already cash-strapped, it’s estimated that K-12 schools need at least $245 billion in additional funding to put safety precautions in place—funding the Republicans in Congress and the Trump administration refuse to give.”

It will be helpful if, by second semester, there is a new administration in Washington, D.C., an administration willing to coordinate a comprehensive plan to help the nation’s struggling school districts. The Shanker Blog‘s Matthew DiCarlo reminds us that some districts are being hurt much worse than others by the lack of federal financial support as well as the lack of leadership and coordination from the Trump administration and Betsy DeVos: “(A)ll public school districts will feel this pain, but it will not be felt equally. Higher poverty districts are more dependent on state revenue, since more affluent districts generate more revenue from local sources (mostly property taxes). But the situation is even worse: higher poverty districts are already spending far less than they need to be. In this sense, the pandemic is going to be particularly harsh on districts with pre-existing conditions.” DiCarlo is, of course, writing about pre-existing school funding conditions that long ago left school districts which serve masses of our nation’s poorest children far behind.

Kamala Harris Has Strongly Supported Public Schools and Cracked Down on Unscrupulous For-Profit Charter Management Companies and For-Profit Colleges

Senator Kamala Harris, Joe Biden’s choice as the Democratic candidate for vice president, has a solid record supporting public schools. As California’s attorney general from 2011 to 2017, Harris also worked aggressively to protect California’s citizens from fraud committed by the nation’s largest for-profit charter school management company.  She also won a lawsuit in 2016 to provide relief to student borrowers who had been victimized by fraudulent advertising by for-profit colleges and trade schools.

The National Education Association (NEA) reports: “Harris gave her maiden speech on the Senate floor in opposition to the nomination of Betsy DeVos, focusing on her utter lack of qualifications and experience as a teacher.  In support of the #Red4Ed movement, she also supported educators’ strikes in Los Angeles and Oakland, California in 2019 saying, ‘Teachers in my hometown of Oakland will begin striking tomorrow because they know they deserve a raise. It’s shameful that they don’t earn enough to live in the communities where they teach.'” The 2018-2019 #Red4Ed teachers’ strikes across the United States were instrumental for forcing a number of states to remedy some of the deep budget cuts lingering from the 2008 recession, cuts that had, in Los Angeles, for example, pushed class sizes to over 40 students in public schools serving some of the city’s poorest children, many of them learning English.

NEA reports that, like Joe Biden, Harris has pushed for “increasing funding for Title I schools to make sure every student has a nurse and social worker… in addition to providing incentives to states to conduct racial and resource equity audits, increase their public school spending, and adopt more equitable funding formulas.” Like Biden she has advocated for fully funding important and federally mandated programs for disabled students. When Congress passed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, the promise was that 40 percent of the cost of the programs would be federally funded. Both Biden and Harris have said that that Congress must work toward 40 percent of IDEA funding, while today, Congress funds only 14.6 percent of these programs with the rest of the investment coming from local school district budgets.

As California Attorney General, Kamala Harris sued the nation’s largest for-profit, online charter school management company, K12 Inc., for unscrupulous practices in California. In 2016, the LA Times’ Howard Blume reported: “The state attorney general’s office has reached an $8.5 million settlement with an online charter school it had accused of false advertising, misleading parents, and inadequate instruction. The settlement, announced late Friday, closes the state’s civil investigation of the 13 branches of California Virtual Academy, but it does not end the challenges for the schools and Virginia-based K12 Inc., which the state had accused of controlling the charters for the company’s benefit.  Blume quotes then California Attorney General, Kamala Harris: “All children deserve, and are entitled under the law, to an equal education… K12 and its schools misled parents and the state of California by claiming taxpayer dollars for questionable student attendance, misstating student success and parent satisfaction, and loading nonprofit charities with debt.”

As California Attorney General, Kamala Harris also fought to protect students who had been cheated by unscrupulous for-profit colleges, which too often leave their students with worthless degrees and outrageous debt. These colleges traditionally fund their operations with federally backed loans and special federal loans for military veterans. Writing for Inside Higher Education, Kery Murakami explains: “(S)he is known for having sued Corinthian Colleges while she was California’s attorney general, accusing the for-profit chain of false and predatory advertising, intentionally making misrepresentations to students, securities fraud, and unlawful use of military seals in advertisements… and in 2016, Harris won a $1.1 billion federal court judgment from the now-bankrupt Corinthian. While that lawsuit was underway, she asked a federal court to prevent Corinthian from enrolling new students.  As attorney general and a Democratic senator from California, Harris has pushed for debt cancellation for former Corinthian students.”

Murakami quotes Kamala Harris’ reflection on what she learned from her work on the Corinthian lawsuit: “There have been a rash of corporate predators who have taken advantage of—and often ruined—vulnerable people. Among the worst examples of these predators are the for-profit colleges that became the darlings of Wall Street….”

The closure of some for-profit colleges like Corinthian and ITT Technical Institutes did not end the injustices in for-profit higher education. Similar institutions continue to saddle their students with massive debts the students will struggle ever to repay.  Writing for Forbes, Zack Friedman explains that Kamala Harris, now serving in the U.S. Senate, has continued to champion the needs of people carrying debt burdens from unscrupulous for-profit colleges: “(I)n 2016, as California’s attorney general, Harris helped to secure a $1.1 billion judgment against Corinthian Colleges, a for-profit education company. Harris also has supported the borrower to defense to repayment rule, which helps borrowers who are victims of fraud receive student loan debt cancellation.” Despite efforts by Harris and others in Congress, “President Donald Trump vetoed a major student loan forgiveness bill regarding borrower defense to repayment. In June (2020), the House of Representatives failed to override the president’s veto.”

U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos has relentlessly promoted the interests of for-profit colleges and trade schools.  DeVos has persistently re-written rules and guidance to block loan forgiveness for former students who were defrauded by the false claims of these for-profit institutions. In contrast, Kamala Harris has been willing to use her position as California Attorney General and U.S. Senator to take action to protect defrauded students. Harris supported the Congressional effort to ensure student debt forgiveness which Trump recently vetoed.

If Biden and Harris prevail in November, we can look forward to a sharp turn away from the philosophy and policies of Betsy DeVos, who has unstintingly promoted private schools at the expense of America’s system of public education.

Disappointing but Not Surprising: Trump and DeVos Ignore Equity and Abandon Safety In Demands to Reopen Schools

There is lots of penetrating writing about the collapse of our society’s ideals in these months since mid-March, when we suddenly realized the coronavirus was among us. As the weeks wore on last spring, and children were thrust into online lessons provided by their schools, a vast invisible digital chasm between wealthy and poor families was immediately exposed.  People vowed that the COVID-19 pandemic would be an inflection point.  America would address growing inequity between the extremely privileged and working families living paycheck to paycheck.

But all summer the Trump administration and Congress have ignored the problems set to emerge when school districts’ released plans for resuming school this fall. The Senate has put off even considering the amount of relief dollars necessary to ensure basic staffing and safety. This week, as the Trump administration falters, the press has been paying attention.  I urge you to read carefully the articles briefly excerpted here to explore what needs to happen in the next month.

The Nation‘s Ellie Mystal most vividly depicts today’s dismaying and confusing realities for families as the Trump administration and Congress have shown not the least concern for the public institution that serves our nation’s children on behalf of our society: “After the Sandy Hook Elementary School massacre, President Barack Obama delivered what I have always believed to be the best speech of his presidency.  He talked about what it’s like to be a parent, and the critical realization, experienced by most parents, that you can’t keep your children safe or teach them well without the help of your friends and neighbors.  Then he expanded that idea to include the whole of society.  He said, ‘This is our first task—caring for our children.  It’s our first job.  If we don’t get that right, we don’t get anything right.  That’s how, as a society, we will be judged.'”

Mystal continues: “We have not gotten anything right when it comes to caring for our children.  We were not getting things right before the coronavirus pandemic; we did not get things right at the outset of the crisis; and as we hurtle towards the fall, we are on the verge of getting things dangerously, irreparably wrong again…  It didn’t have to be this way.  If we had successfully done the work of stopping the spread of the virus, as has been done in other countries, we wouldn’t have to pick which poison to expose our kids to…  Meanwhile, just last week, President Donald Trump worried that CDC guidelines for protecting our children were too ‘expensive.’… And so, we are here.  I wouldn’t let my children eat candy handed out by this administration. There are snakes with better parental instincts than these people.”

For a more abstract evaluation, you can investigate another piece in The Nation, in which Rhea Boyd explores concerns about reopening schools through the lens of a complex economic and sociological analysis: “The wealth gap between the richest and poorest families has more than doubled since 1989.  And the top 1 percent of earners now hold more wealth than the bottom 80 percent… Current debates about reopening schools must be placed in this context, because they illuminate broader and longer fights to remedy racially apportioned accession to mobility… (P)ublic education—like public health, utilities, and public spaces—has become a critical terrain of struggle for greater equality in the United States… But this is the most devastating part.  Despite the poorly funded safety net, folks who fall on hard times are not just victims of a ‘broken system.’  Inequality is the point.  ‘Hard times’ are mass-engineered.  And the reason recent attempts at safety continue to come up short in this country—even in the face of existential threats to human existence like COVID-19—is that in an extractive economy, taking safety from some people hoards it for others.”

At Stanford University, the Learning Policy Institute’s “Learning in the Time of Covid-19 Blog” features Michael A. DeNapoli Jr. writing about the U.S. Senate’s responsibility this week to support schools with  sufficient funds to open safely this fall as the President is currently demanding: “The federal government has a unique and essential role to play in ensuring that students—especially those furthest from opportunity—do not bear the brunt of the economic hardships created by COVID-19.  States, unlike the federal government, cannot engage in massive borrowing and other fiscal maneuvers in response to significant and unforeseen fiscal crises.”

DiNapoli continues: “Much like fiscal recovery from a natural disaster, states must rely on the support of the federal government, which has both the resources and the budget flexibility states lack.  As federal policymakers craft future relief packages, two key questions should guide their analysis: First, what will it take to make school districts whole—that is, make sure they have sufficient funding to cover the myriad of added costs and budget cuts associated with COVID-19?  And second, how can federal funds be used to address historic and current inequities in ways that put us on a path toward a more just educational future?… Underlying the worst economic downturn in nearly 100 years are long-standing racial and economic inequities that have impacted educational opportunity.  The United States has one of the highest rates of childhood poverty of the countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).  Black, Latino/a, and Native American children experience much higher rates of poverty than their White counterparts.  Children living in poverty in the United States also have a much weaker safety net than their peers living in other industrialized countries, where universal health care, housing subsidies, paid parental leave, and high-quality, universally available child care are the norm… States are facing extensive new K-12 education expenses as a result of COVID-19, including those related to providing distance learning, expanded learning, and additional food services for low-income families… While this pandemic has touched nearly every school district, the impact of budget cuts and the level of student needs are not equally distributed… We should therefore target emergency funding where it is needed most… Research consistently shows that investments made in strong educational programming (mainly high-quality teaching) and the resources necessary to learn are effective at closing opportunity gaps and increasing achievement. This was the strategy used for a time in Connecticut, Massachusetts, North Carolina, and New Jersey, which resulted in shrinking gaps and improved outcomes for all students.”

At the same time there has been growing press coverage about how things are more likely to go this fall as families with money find ways to protect their own children.  For the NY TimesClaire Cain Miller covers the growing disparity between public schools and elite private schools with sufficient resources to make major adjustments to control the pandemic. At Punahou, a private school in Honolulu, “The school has an epidemiologist on staff and is installing thermal scanners in the hallways to take people’s temperatures as they walk by. It has a new common area and design lab as well as an 80-acre campus that students can use to spread out. There were already two teachers for 25 children, so it will be easy to cut classes in half to meet public health requirements for small, consistent groups.  The same thing is happening in communities across the country: Public schools plan to open not at all or just a few days a week, while many private schools are opening full time… Public schools, which serve roughly 90 percent of American children, tend to have less money, larger class sizes and less flexibility…. (O)ver all, fall reopening plans are just another way the pandemic has widened gaps in education.”

At the Washington Post, Laura Meckler and Hannah Natanson report a growing trend among some parents who can afford it: “Fed up with remote education, parents who can pay have a new plan for fall: import teachers to their homes.  This goes beyond tutoring.  In some cases, families are teaming up to form ‘pandemic pods,’ where clusters of students receive professional instruction for several hours each day.  It’s a 2020 version of the one-room school house, privately funded… It’s not all ad hoc parent organizing.  An industry normally focused on providing tutors has seized this moment and is working to connect families with educators.  Jennifer Shemtob, owner of Teacher Time to Go, a small company working in the Philadelphia suburbs, said demand is intense.  She is offering a package of three hours of tutoring, four days a week.  For one family, the cost is $480 per week. If two families join, with up to six children, it’s $720 a week total.” “These arrangements will allow children with affluent parents and connections to get ahead even as the system makes it harder for other children, said L’Hereux Lewis-McCoy, a sociology of education professor at New York University.  He calls it a fresh example of ‘opportunity hoarding.'”

I am myself skeptical about the value of online education, and I believe children thrive instead when they work with a qualified teacher and learn collaboratively with their peers.  But the Trump administration and Education Secretary Betsy DeVos have until now consistently promoted online learning.  In a sudden turnaround, however, the Trump administration is disdainful of virtual learning under any circumstances.  The President now demands that schools reopen nationwide, full-time, five days a week even in places where COVID-19 is raging.  At Politico, Michael Stratford quotes quotes the President tweeting last week: “Now that we have witnessed it on a large sale basis, and firsthand, Virtual Learning has proven to be TERRIBLE compared to In School, or On Campus, Learning.” Stratford explains precisely why Trump and DeVos have moved 180 degrees in their opinion of online instruction: “The Trump administration has been clear that it’s concerned that schools remaining closed would be a drag on the economic recovery that the president is banking on ahead of the November election. ‘If we don’t reopen the schools, that would be a setback to a true economic recovery,’ Larry Kudlow, Trump’s top economic adviser said this week.”

On Friday, the Washington Post‘s Matt Viser reported on a press conference convened by presumptive Democratic nominee for President, Joe Biden, to acknowledge the urgent and competing concerns about opening schools this fall: “Biden urged caution, saying that each district should make its own decisions based on local conditions, and that schools in areas with high infection rates should not reopen too soon.  He also called on Congress to pass new emergency funding to help the schools… ‘This year, back to school is going to look very, very different… And we know how hard it’s going to be for families all over the country… Teachers are tough.  But it’s wrong to endanger educators and students.  We need a better plan.'”

Viser continues: “Biden also warned that without an infusion of federal funds, districts will struggle to pay for added health protections and may be forced to lay off teachers.  He called on Congress to allocate emergency funding to help schools reconfigure classrooms, improve ventilation, and take other steps to allow for social distancing within their buildings… ‘We had a window to get this right.  And, Trump blew it… His administration failed to heed the experts and take the steps required to reduce infections in our communities.'”